Characterization of human monocytes activation by a water soluble preparation of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
JANA vol. 2 (3): 59-65 Phytomedicine vol. 8 (6): 445-453
Author(s): N. Pugh, D.S. Pasco
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is fresh water microalgae that is consumed as a nutrient-dense food source and for its health enhancing properties. The current research characterizes the effect of a water soluble preparation from known agents that modulate the immune system. At 0.5 ng/ml the AFA extract robustly activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels at 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 ng/ml) of bacterial lipopoly saccharine (LPS). In addition, the AFA extract substantially increased mRNA levels of interleukin-1B (1L-1B) and tumor necrosis factor-(x (TNF-(x), and enhanced the DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B. The effects of AFA water soluble preparation were similar to the responses displayed by LPS, but clearly different from responses exhibited by tetradecanoyl phordol acetate (TPA) and interferon-gamma (INF-y). Pretreatment of THP-1 monocytes with factors known to induce hyproesponsiveness suppressed both AFA-dependent and LPS-dependent activation. These results suggest that the macrophage-activating properties of the AFA water soluble preparation are mediated through pathways that are similar to LPS-dependent activation.